Sun on the H-R diagram

  • When the Sun has burned all of its hydrogen in its core, it will evolve off the main sequence and rise up the red giant branch.

  • Later, helium burning will commence, comverting the helium in the core to carbon and oxygen. At this point, the Sun will be a red giant much cooler and bigger than the present day Sun.

  • After all the helium is burned, the Sun will become a planetary nebula, blowing off its outer layers.

  • The remnant carbon-oxygen core will become a white dwarf.

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