Galileo undertook many experiments in mechanics, and discovered, among other things that object did not fall at different rates, as Aristotle had believed.
In 1609, he first used a telescope to study the sky. He realized that wherever he looked, he saw more and more stars. He also discovered:
Cratering on the moon. He noted that the Earth was not so dissimilar from celestial objects, therefore.
Sunspots. He noted therefore that the surface of the Sun was imperfect. He also noted the apparent motion of the spots across the Sun's disk implied rotation.
Moons of Jupiter. He was able to see 4 of them (now called the "Galilean satellites"). He noted that their orbital behavior was as predicted by Copernicus.
Phases of Venus: He noticed that when Venus wanes (becomes crescent), it becomes larger.
There is a special page on the life and times of Galileo at the Galileo site at Rice University. Note: this is an external link.
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